DST and the Industry The DST(Department of science and tech.) has worked on several initiatives to help counter future threats to our demographic dividend, posed by the exponential rise of intelligent machines. Programmes such as Interdisciplinary Cyber-physical-Systems (ICPS) are aimed at synthesising artificial intelligence, internet-of-things, big data, deep learning and learning with physical mechanisms such as robots and sensors.
Historically, there exists a significant association between the energy consumption and countries’ composite indicators of human well-being, commonly known as Human Development Index (HDI). Initially countries with low per capita energy consumption tend to have a low HDI, which starts to grow rapidly i.e., a higher HDI goes hand in hand with increased per capita energy consumption. Dubash (2012) opines that no country in history has improved its HDI without a corresponding increase in energy consumption and India cannot be an exception to this trend. At present, India’s per capita energy consumption is approximately 20 per cent of the global average.
Risks associated with earthquakes occurring in and around urban centers pose a safety challenge to planners, administrators, engineers and architects. Seismic microzonation has been recognised as the most accepted tool in seismic hazard assessment and risk evaluation. The concept of seismic microzonation is based on the observation that the intensity of ground shaking in certain frequency bands gets modified by the presence of a pile of unconsolidated sediments, or in a larger sense, local geological conditions alter the characteristics of ground motions.
Consumption is considered to be the fundamental determinant of welfare for any economy. It reflects several important characteristics of an economy including affordability, inequality and more. Consumption behavior is one of the true measures of a society’s economic, political and social conditions at a given point of time or over time capturing various interconnected issues. Though research related to consumption has gained momentum worldwide in the last three to four decades,
Bangladesh was among the first to identify and initiate its struggle against arsenic although many districts in the Terai region Nepal, India and Pakistan also have arsenic contamination. It is a complex challenge because it is dangerous even in minute quantities (>10 gl 1) although WHO recommends 10 gl while India and Bangladesh allow up to 50 gl 1. It is neither visible, nor does it affect smell or taste.
The persistent and widespread symptoms of an imminent water crisis across India are a clear evidence for the failure of our water-related policies and institutions. It is urgent to seek for more durable but politically harder and technically challenging options such as the institution of a water rights system. Why do we need a water rights system? While legal reforms are needed in all spheres of environment and natural resources
Access to safe water is central to living a life of dignity and paves the way for a healthier and better society. As such, the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (UNCESC) adopted the right to water in 2002 in terms of sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic uses. The United Nations General Assembly has recognised and reaffirmed access to safe water as a basic right and indispensable for realization of all human rights in the year 2010. Even though access to improved sources of drinking water has increased in India,
As per the 2011 Population Census, there are 246,740,228 households in India out of which 107,426,831 households which works out to be less than half (44 per cent) have access to tap water. The rest are dependent on water from covered/uncovered well, hand pump, tube well/borehole, spring, river/canal, tank/pond/ lake and other sources. From these 44 per cent of the households, about one third (32 per cent) get treated tap water whereas around one tenth get untreated water (12 per cent) it may be pointed out that despite problems related to the safety of tap water, which varies tremendously across
Geo hydrology (or Hydro geology) – is the branch of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the rocks of the earth’s crust (in aquifers). Groundwater – A hidden resource – when are think of fresh water we probably think of rivers, lakes and perhaps reservoirs. Yet even when we consider the huge lakes of north America or mighty rivers like the Amazon and the Ganges, over 97% of the planet fresh water is to be found under the surface of the earth in the form of groundwater
India is an agrarian country and more than 70 per cent of its irrigated land is dependent on groundwater (Food and Agriculture Organization, 2010). With rapid development and burgeoning population, water, without doubt, is the most vital component. During the last fifty years, groundwater use has increased manifold-almost five times, which has led to the depletion of groundwater in many parts of India (Central Ground Water Board, 2014). Groundwater depletion due to excessive withdrawal coupled with climatic variability has been reported from time to time based on satellite observations and terrestrial measurements