Disaster management has evolved a long way from managing events of disaster to managing the risks of disasters. Risk management approach to disasters means that the underlying hazards and vulnerabilities, natural or anthropogenic, are assessed scientifically and necessary measures are taken to prevent the creation of risks ab initio. It also means that existing risks are reduced through a combination of various structural and non-structural measures including innovative mechanisms of risk sharing and risk insurance. For the residual risks that are neither prevented,
Himalaya has been warming at a rate much higher than the global average. The results of studies on the glaciers of three basins – Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra conducted over three decades are discussed. The 2400 km long actuate Himalaya-Hindu Kush mountain range supports largest accumulation of snow and ice following the Polar Regions of Arctic and Antarctic and Greenland. Apart
Textile Industry is one of the oldest and the largest industries in India. Archeological studies and surveys indicate that the people of Harappan Civilization, which dates back nearly four thousand years, knew spinning and weaving. The glorious saga of development in the textile sector has continued unabated for the last four millennia and today, the industry provides livelihood to millions of textile workers in the country. Efforts are on to provide employment to millions of other workers in the textile industry. Govt. of India has been trying to provide
India’s coal mining has a long history starting form 1774 when Sumer and Heatly of the East India Company began mining the Raniganj coalfield along the western bank of river Damodar. India’s large coal reserves have been its main source of energy since then. In 1853, with the introduction of the steam locomotive, Indian coal mining received a boost after poor exploitation for about a century. With heightened demand, coal production increased rapidly within a short span–from 6.12 million tonnes (mts) per year in 1900 to 18 mts per year by 1920. After the First World War, production reached 29 mts in 1942 and 30 mts in 1946
Water being state subject, most of the reforms has to the initiated at the state level through consensus. The role of different agencies such as Central Water Commission (CWC), Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) is limited to hydrological monitoring of rivers, flood forecasting, groundwater survey and assessment of water quality. In other words, their role is advisory in nature and they have no direct stakes in the outcomes of their decisions. It is quite possible that one state has to forego some of its economic interests for the benefit of another. As a result, in the current institutional set up, the state may show no interest in such plans as they are not statutory in nature.
Mutation, a heritable change in a genetic characteristic of an organism, is a natural process that creates new variants (alleles) of genes. Mutation is the primary source of all genetic variations existing in any organism, including plants. Variation so created by mutation provides the raw material for natural selection and is a driving force in evolution. Natural selection operates to being about evolution of new races and species through the variability created by natural mutations and amplified by subsequent recombination of genes during sexual reproduction. Besides natural mutations that occur spontaneously due to various kinds of radiations and cosmic rays received from the sun and also emitted by several radioactive elements, mutation can also be artificially induced by a number of physical agents like gamma rays and X-rays and several types of chemical agents belonging to few specified groups known
A Reliable supply of electrical energy is indispensable to a nation’s economic growth. However, with changing climatic regimes, taking cognizance of environmental repercussions of fossil fuel based power generation has become a global obligation. Therefore, energy authorities in each country need to collaborate in taking major decisions on fundamental structural changes to enable sustainable energy transitions.
The Indian handicraft and handloom industry forms an integral part of the rich cultural heritage of the country. It is an unorganized, decentralized, labour intensive cottage industry which provides employment to craftsperson in rural and semi urban areas and generates substantial foreign exchange for the country, while preserving the rich and unique cultural heritage of India. Agricultural and pastoral communities have traditionally depended on their skills in weaving and handicrafts as a secondary source of income. It is estimated that there are around 23 million